African art was one of the sources that were fused in works by Braque and Picasso to create the cubist style. Picasso in fact did several little wood carvings in 1907 that owe a direct debt to African masks. Influenced also by Iberian sculpture, he cast small bronzes with masklike faces, such as Head of a Woman (1906-7, Hirshhorn Museum); these show the evolution of the cubist style, which was simultaneously developing in his painting. Greater distortion is seen in Woman's Head (c. 1909, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York); its pinched-out facial planes make this Picasso's first thoroughly cubist sculpture.

Woman Head

In the following years he made numerous constructions and sculptures that can be characterized as cubist, such as the sheet-metal and wire Guitar (1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York City) and the wooden Wineglass and Die (1914, estate of the artist). His later sculpture, however, was created along more traditional figurative lines, as in the bronze Man with Sheep (1944, Philadelphia Museum of Art). Cubist followers During the early decades of the 20th century, numerous sculptors active in Paris were influenced by cubism, including Raymond Duchamp- Villon, Alexander Archipenko, and Jacques Lipchitz. All worked in somewhat representational styles, emphasizing volumetric planes, as can be seen, for example, in Lipchitz's Sailor with a Guitar (1914, estate of the artist).

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"Sculpture," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 98 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.