The history of the art. by Ernst Hans Gombrich. 

Dalí Picasso Tamayo Toledo Van Gogh
Dalí Picasso Tamayo Toledo Van Gogh
da Vinci Matisse Frida Kahlo Diego Rivera Warhol
da Vinci Matisse F. Kahlo D. Rivera Warhol

    It doesn't exist, really, the Art. There are only artists. They were in other times men that caught colored earth and they drew the forms of a bison roughly on the walls of a cave; today, they buy their colors and they trace posters for the stations of the subway. Between some and others they have made many things the artists. 

    There is not any wrong in calling art to all these activities, while we keep in mind that such a word can mean many different things, in times and diverse places, and while we notice that the Art, written the word with A capital, it doesn't exist, because the Art with A capital has for essence that to be a ghost and an idol. You can oppress an artist saying him that what has just carried out is maybe very good to their way, only it is not Art. And you can fill from confusion to somebody that stores squares, assuring him that what he liked in them was not in fact Art, but something different.Really, 

    I don´t believe that there is any illicit reason among those that can make that it likes a sculpture or a square. To somebody it can please him a landscape because it associates it to the image of him house, or a portrait because he reminds to a friend. There is not damage in it. All us, when we see a square, we begin to remember a thousand things that they influence on our likes and aversions. 

    As long as those memories help us to enjoy what we see, we don't have to worry. Only when an annoying memory obsesses us, when instinctively we move away from a splendid representation of an alpine landscape because we hate the sport of climbing, it is when we should sound us to find the reason of our loathing that deprives us of a pleasure that, otherwise, we would have experienced. There are mistaken causes that we don't like a work of art. 

    A lot of people like to see in the squares what he would also like to see in the reality. It is a perfectly comprehensible preference. We are attracted by the beautiful thing to all in the nature and we thank to the artists that pick up it in their works. Those same artists would not censor us for our likes. 

    When the great flamenco artist Rubens drew his son, he was proud of his pleasant factions and he wanted that we also admired to his little son. But this inclination to the beautiful topics and attractiveness can become in noxious if it drives us to reject works that represent less pleasant matters. The great German painter Alberto Durero surely drew his mother with as much devotion and affection as Rubens to his son. 

    His verist studied of the age and the decrepitude can take place so alive impression that makes us separate the eyes of him, and however, if we react against this first aversion, we will be rewarded amply, because Durero´s drawing, in his tremendous sincerity, is a great work. Indeed, suddenly we discover that the beauty of a square doesn't really reside in the beauty of its topic. I don't know if the golfillos that the Spanish painter Murillo delighted in painting they were beautiful strictly or not, but just as they were painted by him, they possess great charm certainly. On the other hand, many would say that it is timid the boy of the wonderful Dutch interior of Pieter of Hooch, but equally it is a delicious square. 

    And the same thing that we say of the beauty is to say of the expression. Indeed, often it is the expression of a character in the square that makes that we like this or it displeases us. Some people are attracted by an expression when they can understand it with easiness and, for it, it moves them deeply. When the Italian painter of the XVII century Guido Quarreled painted to the Christ's head in the cross, he intended, without a doubt that the contemplador finds in this face the agony and the whole exaltation of the passion. 

    In the centuries later, many human beings have taken out forces and comfort of a representation similar of the Christ. The feeling that expresses is so intense and evident that can be reproductions of this work in simple churches and remote places where people don't have idea some about the Art. But although this intense sentimental expression impresses us, not for we will scorn it works whose expression is not maybe so easy of understanding. 

    The painting italian of the medievo that painted the crucifixion, surely felt the passion with as much sincerity as Guido Reni, but to understand his way of feeling, we have to know his procedure firstly. When we end up understanding these different languages, we can until preferring works of art whose expression is less notorious than that of Guido Reni´s work. 

    In the same way that there is who prefers people that use gestures and brief words, in those that is always something to guess, there is also who is roused by squares or sculptures in those that it is something to discover. In the most primitive periods, when the artists were not so skilled in representing faces and human attitudes as they are now it, that that frequently is more impressive it is to see how, in spite of everything, they make an effort in capturing the feelings that they want to transmit.

[Versión en Español]

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